Category: Medical / Neuroscience

Psychiatric Controversies in Epilepsy

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Psychiatric Controversies in Epilepsy addresses controversial clinical issues of the psychiatric aspects of epilepsy. The book explores the reasons behind the poor communication between psychiatrists and neurologists and suggests potential remedies to this important problem, and two chapters are devoted to examining whether psychiatrists and neurologists are properly trained to recognize and treat conditions that both disciplines commonly encounter in clinical practice. Identification of the causes behind the high rate of comorbidity between epilepsy and mood, anxiety, psychotic and attention deficit disorders is given high priority in the volume, and a specific review of the evidence of common pathogenic mechanisms that may be operant in epilepsy and these psychiatric disorders is included. Recently identified bidirectional relationship between mood disorders and epilepsy and its implication in the course and response to treatment of the seizure disorder are also explored. Several chapters are devoted to rectify common misunderstandings of the use of psychotropic drugs in patients with epilepsy, including the use of antidepressant and central nervous system stimulants. Finally, one chapter explores the possibility of organic causes of psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

  • Compiles into one source the important controversial issues of the psychiatric aspects of epilepsy, which have significant implications in clinical practice
  • Authors are internationally recognized authorities in the field of psychiatric aspects of epilepsy

Epilepsy

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The present volume is intended to be a synopsis of seizure disorders with a goal of describing key studies in animals and humans. The translation of pertinent findings from animal studies to human studies, and to potential human studies will be emphasized. Specific cogent animal studies/results which deserve exploration in human seizure disorders will be detailed. The current rate of translation is estimated to be from 7‐9 years, and the “success” rate of translation was very recently listed as less than one half. The success rate is defined as results in human studies which were predicted in advance by animal studies. Both the time between animal and human attempts plus the success rate need improvement.

Models of Seizures and Epilepsy

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Models of Seizures and Epilepsy, Second Edition, is a valuable, practical reference for investigators who are searching for the most appropriate laboratory models to address key questions in the field. The book also provides an important background for physicians, fellows, and students, offering insight into the potential for advances in epilepsy research as well as R&D drug development. Contents include the current spectrum of models available to model different epilepsy syndromes, epilepsy in transgenic animals, comorbidities in models of epilepsy, and novel technologies to study seizures and epilepsies in animals.

  • Provides a comprehensive reference detailing animal models of epilepsy and seizure
  • Offers insights on the use of novel technologies that can be applied in experimental epilepsy research
  • Edited by leading experts in the field that provide not only technical reviews of these models but also conceptual critiques
  • Comments on the strengths and limitations of various models, including their relationship to clinical phenomenology and their value in developing better understanding and treatments

Epilepsy

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Written and edited by world-renowned authorities, this three-volume work is, to quote a reviewer, “the definitive textbook about seizures and epilepsy”. This Second Edition is thoroughly updated and gives you a complete print and multimedia package: the three-volume set plus access to an integrated content Website.

More than 300 chapters cover the spectrum of biology, physiology, and clinical information, from molecular biology to public health concerns in developing countries. Included are detailed discussions of seizure types and epilepsy syndromes; relationships between physiology and clinical events; psychiatric and medical comorbidity; conditions that could be mistaken for epilepsy; and an increasing range of pharmacologic, surgical, and alternative therapies, including vagus nerve stimulation and deep brain stimulation. This edition describes many new antiepileptic drugs, major advances in surgical treatment, and state-of-the-art neuroimaging, EEG, and other technologies for diagnosis and seizure prediction.

A companion Website offers instant access to the complete, fully searchable text, plus an image bank of additional figures, video footage, and annual updates to selected chapters.

Neuropathology

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In neuropathology, the nervous system tissue, usually in the form of either small surgical biopsies or whole autopsy brains are studied. This book presents current research topics in the study of neuropathology gathered from authors across the globe including the therapeutic strategies for polyQ diseases; mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of Huntington’s disease; quantitative studies of a variety of neurodegenerative disorders; evaluation of the hypothalamic and circadian rhythm disturbances in developmental brain disorders; the role of B-synuclein in the pathogenesis of a-synucleinopathies; neuropathology of cultured retinas and the occiptal cortex relating to visual problems of patients with vCJD.

Neuropathology and Basic Neuroscience

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The United States Congress designated the 1990’s as the “Decade of the Brain” in recognition of the importance of neuroscience to the health and well-being of Americans. It has been suggested that as many as 20% of all patients seeking medical treatment have neurologic problems, either as the presenting complaint or as an associated condition complicating the primary illness. To this end, it is important that physicians understand basic neuroscience principles and nervous system diseases. Of course, this text is not encyclopedic but instead is an outline of the knowledge required of all medical students. Interested students can consult numerous texts that provide comprehensive coverage of the field, including Greenfield’s Neuropathology and the exhaustive 60 + volume Handbook of Clinical Neurology. The information selected for inclusion in this volume of the Oklahoma Notes series remains true to the goal of the whole series-incorporating only that material vital in both the general clinical practice of medicine and to answer questions on the all-important United States Medical Licensing Examination. Roger A. Brumback Richard W. Leech Acknowledgments This text would not have been possible without a great deal of help and support from a number of individuals. We want to thank all those who assisted in our education in neuroscience and neuropathology including: William M. Landau and Philip R. Dodge of the Washington University School of Medicine, Lowell W. Lapham of the University of Rochester Medical Center, and Ellsworth C.

Neuropathology

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Increasing specialisation in pathology reflects the progressive changes in medical practise. The advent of a specialist with a new interest in a hospital or clinic may present the pathologist with a need to extend his or her knowledge to be able to work closely with the clinical practi tioner in order to provide adequate clinical care. Some sub-specialisations are long established, such a one is neu ropathology. However, an exclusive specialist practise is generally con fined to neurosurgical centres and much neuropathology is of necessity, executed by geneni.l pathologists. The areas covered by this volume are those which are commonly managed by the generalist. Professor Adams’ account of how the skull and brain should be examined here will give confidence to many by defining a good technique and the careful description of various kinds of vascular injury lesions resulting from raised intracranial pressure will help to clarify repeated difficulty. More subtle forms of damage are also considered in detail. Professor Weller provides a detailed account of how the central nervous system may be examined in a way which permits all of us to prepare material which will allow adequate investigation of central nervous system disease and the proper examination of peripheral nerves. This chapter will become a “handbook” and will be of interest to those in training and established practitioners. Muscle biopsy is also dealt with; this is an area of investigative concern for many gener alists. The role of that singular neuropathological technique is very clearly emphasized.

The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology

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Consciousness is one of the most significant scientific problems today. Renewed interest in the nature of consciousness – a phenomenon long considered not to be scientifically explorable, as well as increasingly widespread availability of multimodal functional brain imaging techniques (EEG, ERP, MEG, fMRI and PET), now offer the possibility of detailed, integrated exploration of the neural, behavioral, and computational correlates of consciousness. The present volume aims to confront the latest theoretical insights in the scientific study of human consciousness with the most recent behavioral, neuroimaging, electrophysiological, pharmacological and neuropathological data on brain function in altered states of consciousness such as: brain death, coma, vegetative state, minimally conscious state, locked-in syndrome, dementia, epilepsy, schizophrenia, hysteria, general anesthesia, sleep, hypnosis, and hallucinations. The interest of this is threefold. First, patients with altered states of consciousness continue to represent a major clinical problem in terms of clinical assessment of consciousness and daily management. Second, the exploration of brain function in altered states of consciousness represents a unique lesional approach to the scientific study of consciousness and adds to the worldwide effort to identify the “neural correlate of consciousness”. Third, new scientific insights in this field have major ethical and social implications regarding our care for these patients.

Neuropathology

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Neuropathology, Volume 145, the latest release in the Handbook of Clinical Neurology series, includes all the major topics found in a typical neuropathology text, but differentiates itself by providing a thorough overview of the morphological background of neurological disorders for researchers and clinicians who do not specialize in pathology or its clinicopathological aspects. This volume offers strong coverage of brain imaging and advances in molecular pathology and genetics, and is particularly timely given the amount of neuropathological research currently taking place.

  • Provides a resource for the non-pathologist, aiding primary clinicians and researchers in the interpretation of patient symptoms and research findings
  • Includes standard neuropathology, but extends to clinicopathology, imaging and molecular pathology/genetics
  • Presents an interdisciplinary approach that can be applied in everyday clinic and research efforts

Essential Forensic Neuropathology

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This book is written for pathologists and trainees in forensic pathology and neuropathology who will have to conduct forensic neuropathology autopsies. It will provide them with the basic knowledge to conduct a thorough postmortem examination of the nervous system, describe and document the relevant pathological changes, and interpret these findings in a way that will be helpful in determining the cause and manner of death. Great importance will be placed on the objective and rigorous documentation of the pathological findings, because many of these autopsy reports will be re-examined in the context of legal inquiries and proceedings.

A companion Website will offer the fully searchable text, an image bank, and additional e-figures.